From that small carnivore that originated dog and cat’s ancestors, over 50 million years ago, to the current domestic dog, a series of animals appeared on earth, in constant evolution process, adapting their morphology successively. But a long time passed before getting to the Canis etruscus, appearing in Europe over 2 million years ago and preceeding the Canis Lupo, the wolf from which our domestic dog comes from. That dog that today, by natural evolution process or by the selective breeding that man has conducted through time, hundreds of breeds have been developed, from the small Chihuahua to the majestic Great Dane, keeping more or less the wolf prints that originated them. About 30,000 years ago during the Ice Age, humans and wolves were already defined social groups.
Dogs have become the company animal by excellence. There is nothing better to combat loneliness than having a dog at home.
Dog Breeder - How to get the most from your dog breeder.At some point in that period, canids began approaching man to feed from their hunting remains. This attitude allowed some of the more docile puppies to approach human coexistence, and thus domestication began, which many millennia later would lead to the appearance of dogs that share work, sport and affection with us. The most ancient evidence of human and dog relationship goes back 10.000 years ago. Special domestication methods were not necessary since dogs, understanding the benefits in associating to man, not only avoided it but approached man seeking coexistence. At first dogs prowled places where human groups settled and, little by little, integrated to those groups. From simple spectators, went on to be part of hunting expeditions, learning that their task as assistants was chasing and bringing the pieces men killed close to the men, convinced that such behavior brought them some advantages.
For their part, men quickly realized they had found a hunting aid in this new partner, a lookout and a guardian. In a short time, and without abandoning the tasks they performed in the group, dogs began turning into something more than a worker at the service of humans, since they both learned to keep each other company and be friends. From the moment they began associating themselves with man, dogs could already be told apart between several breeds due to natural mutations of some morphologic elements. This natural primitive breed selection indicates that, since then, the Canis familiaris species had a clear variation tendency for survival.
Later, occidental Asians and Egyptians began to select, breed and train different breeds, such as mastiffs and greyhounds, with some objectives that were not functional or beneficial to the community. They painted then and dignified them, as well as cats, with mummification and a pompous burial. Romans also demonstrated great interest for the canine world: during the Empire a large portion of current breeds was already known.
In summary, we can say that with domestication, dogs became an important work aid for men. During the Neolithic, at the time when agriculture and stockbreeding was being developed, dogs became essential as hunters and shepherds due to their acute sense of smell and great resistance. From that first moment, collaboration became stronger and covered other action fields by a first aid kit.
Because of their different aptitudes and physical characteristics, dogs were also war companions, target animals, attentive guardians or vigorous athletes. They inspired great artists who immortalized them in their books, sculptures and paintings. They fulfilled every task man entrusted them perfectly and still do. For all this, it’s the best animal to share our lives with. www.redcross.ca/firstaid/
The Saluki Dogs are is one of the oldest domestic canine breeds in the world. It is probable that, related to the Afghan greyhound, it already existed in the Sumerian period. It arrived in Europe by the hand of the Celts, who used it in hunting, it spread un Greece and later the Romans introduced it in Italy. In1840 it was known in England, where it was called the Persian greyhound and the breed’s purity was officially acknowledged in 1923, setting the first standard. Unfortunately, currently there are few specimens in this breed.
This is the largest of greyhounds and one of the largest dogs in the world, probably, the genetic successor of animals introduced to Ireland by the Celts. According to some opinions, the Irish greyhound can be one of the origins of this magnificent breed, developed for wolf hunting. A patient breeding was conducted, crossing deerhounds, dogges and, possibly the borzois, to achieve that in 1897, the Kennel Club acknowledged this breed, which currently has few specimens.
It is thought that the borzoi could have appeared in the XVI century, from the crossing of the saluki and a Russian shepherd. This breed was the Russian nobility’s favorite during a long time, who engaged in spreading it towards other European countries, such as England. Towards the end of the XIX century it also reached the United States and there the breeding was promoted and along with the breeding conducted in Europe, it was kept from extinction.
The borzoi is considered the most noble of greyhounds due to its physical elegance and distinct movements.
There are references to this breed, also called the Magyar Agar, in Hungarian tombs of the IX, even when it didn’t have English greyhound blood. It is considered that such later, and excessively frequent crossing, harmed the linage purity greatly, for which current breeders are, mainly, trying to avoid that kinship, retrieving and maintaining the breed purely defined.
Its ears are always droopy but it erects them, briefly, during sexual arousal.
In Scotland, its native land, it is called deerhound due to its use in deer hunting, in which it is a true expert. It is a very ancient breed, which was protected by the clan lords, until the deer became scarce and the breeding was almost abandoned. But in England several breeders engaged in keeping it and selecting it with strict criterion that resulted in a dog with great purity.
Moroccan in origin, this greyhound descends from the great Egyptian greyhound, now extinct, and since many centuries ago it traveled along the Arabs that settled in the North of the African continent. It developed throughout Morocco for hare and antelope hunting and, currently, it is a breed with an almost diffusion almost limited to its place of origin. But it wasn’t always like this, since after the Argelian war some specimens were taken to France, which were considered as luxury dogs.
With this afghan greyhound is the same as other breeds of ancient origin, which are surrounded by legends. It is said, that Noah himself put a couple of Afghans into his ark, which would make them the oldest dogs on earth. It probably is a descendent of the ancient Egyptian greyhound which was used in hunting large game. From 1888, in which a British Army Official took a couple of Afghans to England, is development began in Europe and its spread throughout the world.
The English greyhounds descend from the ancient Egyptian greyhounds. From Egypt it reached Greece, whereof its name Greek Hound and later to Great Britain, probably taken by the Phoenicians. During the ruling of Henry VIII, his successor, Isabel, engaged directly in the breed’s development, requesting that hare chasing championships were celebrated. It is said that it is the best pure greyhound and one of the best hunters. Carpaccio, Veronese or Van Dick were some of the painters that had greyhounds as models for their pieces.
Immortalized in Renaissance paintings, the Italian greyhound belongs to a breed that was already known, at least five centuries before our era. This dog comes from the ancient Egypt, from there it spread to Greece and later to Italy, presences proven by several period objects that represent it. But the Renaissance was without a question its golden era. Nowadays, it is a much procured animal as a company dog.
It is thought that this breed already existed in the Roman era, there is no doubt that one of its predecessors is the Arab greyhound, which reached the peninsula during the conquest. Its speed in the popular greyhound races as well as its skill in hare hunting guarantee its presence in dog tracks and hunting competitions, being much appreciated in Spain. But this is not the case outside Spanish borders, because after some crossings with the English greyhound, the breed’s purity was detrimented.
This African greyhound comes from the vicinities of the Azawakh valley, in the border with Mali. The nomad tribes of the Sahara, such as the Tuareg, bred and formed it as an excellent gazelle hunter, feeling so proud of it that they never allowed its sale. However, during the middle of the XX century a Yugoslavian doctor acquired a couple which originated new families in Europe and North America.
Named that way for its traditional rabbit hunting skill. Greyhounds stand out due to their light and elegant movements, their enormous resistance, their attentive and deep gaze and, mostly, for their running speed. There is no dog more specialized than the greyhound for this type of hunting, and it is also officially acknowledged as the athletic dog by excellence. In older days, the esthetic beauty and enthusiasm that greyhound racing provoked in open field led several fans to promote the competitions as a popular sport.
Despite the fact that is origins are placed in the Far East, its sponsorship is due to English breeder, for being in England, where this breed has most been developed. In the XVI century, a couple of Dutch sailors brought it to Europe, reaching land in England where it developed and naming the pug, which emanated from the pugonese vocal, which means snub nose.
It is said that a hairless dog already existed 10,000 years ago in China. There are some who defend that this dog finds its origin in the Mexican hairless dog. Other theories support precisely the opposite, the crossing of the hairless Mexican dog and the Chihuahua originated the Chinese crested. This breed, whatever its origin and age, has risen curiosity in Occident since 1885, when it was first shown in New York. From that date, it has spread throughout America and Europe, where it entered through England and reached a lot of popularity.
This ancient breed (probably a descendant of the lullu), is dated back more than 4.000 years. It was worshiped in China as a sacred animal it was attributed powers and direct intervention in the world of the gods, it was an Imperial family favorite, being it the favorite of several dynasties. During centuries, its sale was banned as well as it leaving the country, until in 1860 a few British soldiers, after the Peking raids, took it to Europe where it spread and was quickly popular.
This breed’s origin, known in France since the XIV century, it is barely known that it seems to have emerged from the bichon fries or the Maltese and that it was a pet in castles and palaces. It had very popular moments followed by a long period of indifference until, almost disappeared, the breed was reconstructed again.
This breed is native to the mountain areas in Tibet, with such an ancient origin that there are no reliable data about its ascendants or about its age, although it is said that it is over 800 years before our time. It was thought to be a sacred dog, able to attract prosperity and happiness to its owners, for which it couldn’t be sold or exchanged for any material good, but it could be given as a present as a token of friendship, which the Dalai Lama did by giving it to the Chinese Emperors.
The existence of this canine variety is very recent and it is due to chance and the insistence of a German breeder, Ilse Schleifenbaum who, according to her words, fell in love with the first puppies she saw. The origin was the natural crossing between a German female, with unknown linage, and a male, also unknown, taken by an American soldier to Germany, at the end of the war.
It is a very ancient English breed, which reached great popularity since the XVII century, as recorded in several period paintings, in which this spaniel sits beside several monarchy personalities, as the portrait of Charles II of England painted by the Flemish Van Dyck, in which a breed’s specimen appeared, whereof its name. There was a period, in which its extinction was feared, in favor of the most recent Cavalier King Charles, another spaniel of similar characteristics, generated with the blood contribution of the King.
This breed’s name comes from the French cation, which means cotton, and de Tulear (or Toliara), which it is a city in the Southwest shore of Madagascar (in front of the Mozambique Channel, in the African continent). It is likely that some dogs of this breed reached the island after a shipwreck in the Indian Ocean, as narrated in certain pirate legends, or that its ascendants, were taken by the French troops to the Saint Pierre Island.
In some ancient documents it is recorded that the dogs that originated the current Japanese chin were a present of the Korean Silla Emperor to the Japanese court in the year 732. Other documents prove that some dogs were taken to china, after developing the breed in Japan. From 1680 to 1709, it was bred and selected in the Edo castle as a toy dog. During that period a British Capitan, named Searles, took a specimen to England and, later, commodore Perry, American, also took a few chins back to its country, sending a couple to Queen Victoria of England, a big fan of dogs.
As its name indicates, this breed is native to Chihuahua, the largest state in the Mexican Republic. It seems that its origin was a savage dog that was domesticated during the Tolteca Empire, as decorative figurines found in temples in the Tula area show. During the late XIX century, American breeders were interested in hunting and began massive breeding that spread to almost every country in the world.
The poodle’s existence in Europe is known since de end of the XVII century. It emerged in France and Germany, where it is used as a duck hunting dog due to its great ability to collect specimens in the water. In Russia it was the “engine” of the milk delivery wheel burrows. During a long time, the miniature poodle was one of the preferred pets in the European aristocracy.
Every data indicates that this breed, also known as the French buledogue, was a consequence of some British worker emigration to France, where they took some small English bulldogs, towards the end of the XIX century. There they crossed with some imported dogges from the north of Europe, until achieving this bulldog as known today. Selected as mice hunting dogs, they quickly became popular amongst traders and warehouse owners. Currently it has become an appreciated company animal.
Towards 1870, American breeders developed this breed for dog fights, which reached great popularity in the United States, especially in Boston, whereof its name. Breeding and selection was conducted from the crossings of the bulldog and the bull terrier, intending that the resulting dog was more combative than its separate antecessors.
The name Maltese doesn’t mean that this breed is native to the Malta island. Although its origin, because of its age, is lost in history, what does seem true is that dogs with these traits already existed in the pharaoh Egypt. From there, they went to Greece and Rome and there are documents that prove this, referring to its ancestors as canis meliteri, dogs that lived in towns along the Mediterranean shores. It was a much appreciated breed, protected by nobility in every court in the South of Europe, but was not massively spread in the past, as isn’t nowadays.
This dog’s origin, descendant of the Bolognese, is the coast of the western Mediterranean coast, especially the Spanish and Italian coast, although it is erroneously thought to be Cuban. In reality, it developed in the Caribbean island since it arrived there from the harbors in the South for Europe. After crossing with small poodles some havanese bloodlines completely disappeared that, however, exist in the United States, being a very popular breed then. It seems that the name “havanese” was given to it because its color is similar to dry tobacco leafs.
The Bolognese origin is very ancient, Aristotle already referenced this Italian breed, canes melitenses, in praising terms, since then and in later periods, this dog has been so appreciated that it was offered as a special gift to important personalities with the intention of pleasing them.
This breed, relatively new, emerged from the crossings of the spaniel and bloodhounds in the Sussex area in England, and was close to extinction after World War II. Despite the fact that its breeding was restarted with much devotion and effort, today this dog is less popular than the spaniel and everything indicates that there are not many, not even in its native area.
It was developed in the west of England and, mainly, in the Welsh country. There is not a determined period that indicates its origin, despite that in many XVII century paintings a dog with identical features appears, for which it is inferred that this is a pure and ancient breed. Also known as the welsh spaniel, its main function is collecting game, but it could be a good pet as long as its hunter instinct is respected.
In the XVII century, this English breed and the cocker were classified as a single breed, which were told apart only by their size. In 1880, the American Spaniel Club selected the breeds for their size, and any specimen over 12.7 kg was classified as a springer. From 1902, the English Kennel Club acknowledged the springer spaniel as a different breed.
During the last decades of the XIX century, field spaniel English breeders were very thorough making these dogs longer and lighter, for which the breed lost a large part of the recommended criterion to achieve a pure breed. Despite the fact that, from 1920, they tried to amend these mistakes, the result is that currently there are few field spaniels with the correct characteristics, adjusted to the set standard. In the United States it is virtually unknown, since, besides that reason, the most famous spaniels are the cocker and the springer.
It is an American breed, native to the Maryland coast and more precisely the Chesapeake Bay, whereof its name. It seems to have emerged during the early XIX century in the most natural way, without anyone intervening in its breeding. An English ship, in which some Terranova dogs traveled, ran aground at the shore, the dogs crossed with the retrievers living there and this new breed emerged. Its popularity in Europe is very limited, with very few specimens, which appear every now and then in canine shows.
Unmatched retriever English breed that was probably originated from the crossings of dogs imported from the north of the American continent. In the middle of the XIX century the breed was set and immediately attracted the hunters’ attention due to its noticeable benefits in the modality.
This breed has a very ancient water breed. According to some old documents, it could have lived in the VII century B.C., it is thought that its antecessor was a steppe shepherd from Central Asia that spread towards Turkey and the North Africa, arriving to the Iberian Peninsula with the Arabs. In Portugal, it established throughout the coast, with greater incidence in the Algarve area, where fishers used it to guide the fish banks into the nets and as a messenger between the ships and from the ships to the beach.
This breed represents every water dog that, with some minor differences, inhabit the European coasts, because since 1850 its selective breeding was conducted, crossing it with the different local varieties, within the same breed. Although it was bred for working in almost every variety, it adapts better to wild bird hunting.
Its origin is one of the oldest in the canine world. It is said that it reach Spain by the hand of the Arabs, towards the year 711, maybe that is why it was known as the “Turkish” during a long time, especially in Andalucía, area where they are most abundant. It is also very popular in Asturias and Cantabria, where it is called the “wool dog”, in Extremadura it is the “churro” or more affectionately “churrito” and in the Basque country it is “txo”. It can be said that, as a working dog, it is polyvalent, as a shepherd, a hunter or help for the fisherman in the sea.
It is an English breed, related to the golden retriever although there are different theories about its origin. One of them is that this dog descends from the St. John, one of the ones that went along the fishermen in the long campaigns across Greenland. Another one is that its ancestor was a Portuguese dog, the Castro laboreiro, since the Portuguese fishing boats spent long months fishing in the Nordic areas and their crews could have taken this breed when they came back.
Its origin is placed in Great Britain towards 1920. Its development, respecting the breed’s purity, was due to official breeders of the IV Gordon Duque, in honor of who it receives its name. In 1842 a couple of the Gordon setter was taken to the United States, and there they were crossed with other English and Scandinavian dogs, achieving the breed we know today.
It was originated towards 1865 in Scotland. It is a work dog bred form the cross of the water spaniel and the curly haired retriever, used to collect hunting pieces in the water or dense weeds. Golden was selected, by the breeder’s preference, and was acknowledged in 1980 becoming very popular in other countries quickly.
This breed was raised in the United States from the cocker spaniel, selected for hunting, especially to find nests inside thick vegetations. It was originally acknowledged in 1946.
This cocker’s complexion is more slender than its English predecessor, never surpassing 39.30 cm in height, the muzzle is shorter and the fur is wavier, shiny, silky and long. It may have a mixed or homogenous color, admitting a great shade variety. It has dark eyes with a sweet, intelligent and lively expression; the ears are long, droopy and covered in long and wavy bristles.
Although the basic type was originated in Spain, many centuries ago, several spaniel varieties were developed in England and the in Ireland, Scotland and France. Because of this it is catalogued this breed as an English selected for hunting.
The clumber is the most recent spaniel. Although it is allocated to England, it seems its real origin is French. During the French Revolution, and facing the fear of these dogs disappearing, the Duque of Noailles sent them to England. There, the nobility took on its breeding and development and the breed took the name clumber, as a property of the Duque of Nottingham. If its genetic ascendance we could mention the alpine spaniel, who in turn is descendent of Spanish breeds and the basset hound.
The Hungarian origin of the vizla goes a thousand years back, when the Magyar hunters settled in what today is Hungary, as proven by carved stones of the X century, representing a hunter with a hawk and a dog identical to the vizla. Also, XIV century chapters about falconry clearly reference the breed. It was nearly extinct after the two World Wars and if the breed was recovered, it was due to decided breeders who in 1945 took the few dogs left to Austria, where they began an organized and selective breeding.
Its origin is very ancient, judging by the work of some Middle Ages famous painters. It is also described in the manual “The Perfect Hunter”, by Selicourt, published in 1683; for this, it is known that the spinone is an exclusively Italian breed, which comes from the Piamonte and Lombary areas. It was much appreciated by the period’s nobility and was spread, under their sponsorship, during the Renaissance, but currently it is unknown outside its native country.
French breed from the Picardy area, in the shores of the Somme river, that even being very ancient, it was only bred selectively from the beginning of the XX century. In that breeding, besides the Picardy spaniel, the English setter could have intervened, although it seems probably that other breed were not used, which maintains its blood purity.
It shares its genetic origin with the English setter although it appeared more recently, reaching its great popularity in the XVIII century in Ireland, where breeding began and developed. Currently, the Irish setter is bred in many European countries and the United States, mainly due to its esthetics than its hunting use. Hunters continue to appreciate it as an excellent field worker.
This breed is, without a question, one of the most valued in the hunting world. It was already known in 1570, as proved in a document signed by an expert in that time, Dr. Caius, who describes it in detail. In England, its native country, its morphology was defined an documented in 1872, which has kept the same in its current standard, from which can be inferred that its purity has remained as time has gone by. Besides its synergetic ability, the English setter has gained a preference place as a company dog, waking great interest and appreciation in almost every country in the world.
There is a generalized opinion about the English Pointer that considers it as the best hunting pointer dog. It was originated from the Spanish braco, taken by the British soldiers to their country after the Spanish war. Much later, selective crosses were made with the foxhound, English greyhounds and the French braco. Although this breeds ancestors are quite accepted, there is a complete biography in which its author, William Arkwnght, defends that, as many other pointing dogs, the English pointer descends from the Italian braco.
This is a very old breed, developed for several hunting modalities. During the XIX century, it reached great popularity as hunting gained more fans as a sport. In its origin the griffon, the German shorthaired pointer and the British pointer had a place.
German breed, developed since the XVII century with the objective of achieving a dog that was a good hunter, of feathered animals as well as furred, in land and in water and, mostly, which was very fast. This was achieved very satisfactorily and elevated this pretty dog to the court’s favorites. Its predecessors are other types of pointers, foxhounds, Italian bracos and some Spanish hunting dogs. In 1920, it was taken to the United States and its breeding began successfully amongst the hunters that now take care of its selection and development with genuine commitment.
Its origins are almost the same than other German pointers, probably with a great genetic contribution from the setter, and it is only different form them for its fur quality and for being slightly shorter than the latter.
This Burgos pointing dog is rarely known beyond the limits of the Castilian plateau where it is native from, although it is probable that it was the main antecessor of many other pointing dogs.
This griffon’s real origin is German, although the International Canine Federation awarded it to France, since it was the country with the largest diffusion and where the breeding is most extended. While the Germans devoted to breeding older breeds, French breeders carefully developed this breed, already considered national. It descends from different European pointer breeds and is much appreciated in almost every country due to its natural hunting instinct as well as for its beautiful looks and good temperament.
The Italian braco’s existence goes back to an age difficult to establish, but it seems to go back five centuries before our era. In its origins, intervened the Mesopotamia mastiffs and, more agile and fast, Egyptian dogs. During the Middle Ages, the breed developed with the genetic contribution of the pointer, to achieve a dog that was a real specialist in net hunting.
Currently, and since one hundred years ago, this breed is considered one of the oldest of the ones bred under a rigid purity criterion, within the group of German pointers. In the beginning of the XIX century, experienced rangers and hunters were devoted to this breeding in the Central European court of the Duque of Weimar, for this they would cross native dogs with guide dogs, until towards 1890 this criterion was modified. It was then when strict planning of the breed began, developing a pure linage and also producing a long hair variety which emerged in isolation.
Original from the central Bourbonnais area in France and it is known, since at least the XVI century, this dog was and is still bred for hunting partridge. During its life many mistakes have been made, inappropriate crossings, poor selection and, in summary, lack of interest, which has seriously harmed the breed’s purity. In the 1960 and 1970, a new and rigid selection genetic criterion was set to regain that purity, until a good Bourbonnais specimen was achieved.
As in other ancient breed, its origin is also involved in different legends that give it a mysterious and charmed element that integrated in the town’s folklore. In the case of this French braco, it is said that the Templar took it to the Auvergne area. But there are those that defend that it comes from Malta and went along the journeys of the Order knights. Legends aside, the English pointer gave this breed quick movement and fine sense of smell through its blood.
Unlike many other hunting breeds, the pointer dog is trained to indicate the exact location of the prey. This task is performed with the aid of its exceptional sense of smell and its voice tone. During hunting, the dog needs to remain close to its master, until he orders it do advance, which it does tracking in only a certain area. In this group, all breeds are after the same objective, which is not to catch the prey until the hunter has it in view, but differ in their way of performing.
Practically unknown outside its native Poland, this breed’s dog reminds the San Huberto which it must be a descendent from, besides carrying the blood of other German and Austrian trackers. After World War II, a group of hunters found some lost specimens, some of the few conflict survivors, and bred them gaining the intended success, having it officially acknowledged in 1966, year when its first standard was set.
One could say that it is the Norwegian corresponding of the Finnish dog, with which it shares its origins and is also not known outside its native land. They are two similar dogs in several aspects. The Norwegian hound is a robust and strong dog, able to adapt to every kind of weather and terrain. It is an exceptional hunter with the ability to run after a prey for an entire day without wearing out. It can be said that it is more a marathon runner than a sprinter.
It is one of the oldest hounds, originated at first by the Egyptian greyhounds. During the XVII century, and in view of the unorganized methods it was bred, appropriate methods were set to enhance the breed. But a long time passed before the proper enthusiasm was shown to its optimal development.
Finnish hound breeding begun towards the XVIII century with the crossing of Swiss, Scandinavian, German and British hounds. Later, and seeing that there were a considerable amount of similar dogs, a breeding was developed and the selecting was more regulated, until the breed was purified and achieve the first standard, set in 1932.
Since the Middle Ages, this breed appears described in the work of several classical authors, but especially in the Mounting Site of King Alfonso XI. It was bred for its use in large game and also in rabbit hunting. During a few years, in the middle of the XX century, the selective and organized breeding rules were neglected, for which the breed was in danger of degenerating irreparably.
It seems this breed was already around during the roman period and that its spread was due to the conquering army expansion. In Switzerland, where its origin is place, it was known in the XV century and from there it was exported to other European countries, essentially to Italy and France. In 1882 a common standard was set establishing the small differences amongst the five breed varieties that coexisted then: Thurgau, Berna, Jura, Lucerna and Schwyz.
It is a French breed, with an unknown origin date, although it is mentioned in the 1890 hunting manual. It was thought extinct after the World War II, but in 1970, breeders began its reconstruction parting from the very few specimens they could find, through a careful selection that rendered excellent fruits.
This bloodhound, also called a German braco, it is an all purpose dog at work. Bred since 1897, or maybe before since in a German site about the braco’s origin edited in that year it was already mentioned.
Since the Middle Ages, otter hunting was already popular in England. It was in that country, during the XIX century, where breeding and selection of a dog breed dedicated to that type of hunting and, through successive water bloodhound crossing, the otter dog was conceived, as popular as it is in its country.
This dog comes from meridional Africa, most likely Ethiopia, where it appeared around 500 A.C. It is respected and cared for by the towns it lives in due to its excellent contribution to economy, thanks to their impressive hunting skills. The English and Ditch colonist that emigrated in the XVI and XVII century spread them outside the African continent.
It is a Portuguese breed, whose origin is not exactly known although, within the most logical assumptions, we find that it could be a descendant of an extinct Spanish braco. Despite it being known since the XIV century, its first standard was set in the 1930s. It is not known outside of Portugal.
Its origin, in the French department of Vendee, was due to the fact that the great griffon breeders wished for the same dog, but in smaller proportions. So, they crossed this dog with the San Huberto dog and the tawny Italian and, after successive selections, this variety was born.
This mountain dog native to the Alps is also known as the Alp basset. From this German breed, injured deer tracker and noticeable in its performance as a rabbit and fox hunter, has been known since the XVIII century in two varieties, so similar that have a single standard. The breeding, selected by the hunters, was due to the crossing of German tracking dogs amongst which, certainly, was a basset. The official acknowledgement was performed in the XX century, being scarcely renowned outside its native country.
Its origin is placed to the south of England, after continuous crossings of the greyhound, fox terrier and bulldog, selecting it with the purpose of gaining a good rabbit hunter. The first pack formed in which these harrier dogs were included seems to date back to the year 1260.
The most famous breeder for this dog has been Le Coulteux.
This is a breed raised in France, descendent from the king’s White dog and some ancient griffon, probably with some blood contribution of a pointer. In 1946, this breed was practically extinct and reconstructed from the few specimens available, setting a new standard in 1962.
It is a short legged dog, with an elongated structure, developed muscles and flexible walk. It is lively and calm, it shouldn’t be aggressive or nervous and should never come across as afraid.
TEMPERAMENT AND ADAPTATION
It is a serene, calm, lively dog, not aggressive or cowardly at all, it accepts training well as it adapts to a family life.
It is a Swedish native dog, very ancient, similar to some basset types, which makes us think that originally there must have been bloodhounds with these characteristics. It is very little known outside its native country. The Swedish Kennel Club acknowledged it officially in 1947; in 1952, the FCI also acknowledged the breed and its first standard was set in that same year.
This dog was selected and bred in the Ancient Dalmatia, now a territory in Croatia. During its origins it was called a “relay dog”: for its great resistance, it walked ahead or behind its master’s carriages to protect them during journeys. The Disney movie, 101 Dalmatians, made it a fashionable dog, which had already been the pet of some firemen corporations in the United States, after the publishing of Dodie Smith’s site in 1956.
Also called the Basset Faitee de Bretagne, this small, French bloodhound descends from larger breeds, such as the Grand Fauve, currently practically extinct, breed from which it inherited its great resistance and impulsiveness.
This breed was originated in France, from the extinct Artois basset, which was taken to England in 1874 and there, from artificial crossings with the San Huberto blood hound, was selected as a hunting breed.
This is a French dog, raised for pack or lone hunting. It belongs to the Midi French dog group, as the breeding is known in the south of France. During its evolution it has been constant and hasn’t suffered interruption periods. Nowadays it is not only a good rabbit and wild rabbit hunter, but it is also an excellent company dog.
This is a French breed, descending from some basset varieties already extinct, whose controlled breeding began in 1870. From then the Artois was selected, now extinct and the Normand variety. In 1924 the Normand basset was defined, in which there was no trace of the Artois.
It is able to penetrate thickly vegetated areas, but we must prevent it from entering very rugged terrains since its limbs are too short to resist them.
It is native to the Ariege area in France, and probably turned out from the crossing of the half-blood, French bloodhound and a Gascony Blue. It has kept the traits of the original dog, although it is less persistent, smaller and lighter. We are still waiting for the Spanish Federation to allow a translation of the breed’s name to our language.
Since immemorial times, the hunter has developed his activity with the aid of the dog, depending on its acute sense of hearing, sight and mostly its sense of smell, to collect difficult game. The breeds in this group are those who continually chase and with a sustained race, the preys its sense of smell points toward.
The Florentines called this dog the Cane de Quirinale, while the Romans still know it as the Quinnal dog. It is a breed that shares its origin with other spitz, which lived its heyday in the XVII century when it was protected by nobility and that still enjoys prestige and admiration inside and out of Italy.
Japanese breed, descendent from the white and large German spitz, through the Siberian areas and the north of china, it reached Japan toward the early XX century. In 1921, it was entered in a show for the first time in Tokyo, when this breed’s standard was first set. After World War II, white spitz were imported from Canada, United States, China and Australia which contributed new blood to the breeding, almost nonexistent during the conflict, and its unique and definitive standard was set.
Genetic heir of the lake community dogs, which in turn descended from the tundra dogs that lived during the Stone Age, the German spitz is without a doubt the representative of the most ancient breed in Central Europe and originated many other breeds, currently spread throughout the world.
In Japan, its native country, it is called kochi-ken. Kochi, because that is the name of the mountain it is bred in, and ken, which means dog in Japanese. It is classified in three different ways, awa, hongawa and nata, and the only reason of this difference is the birth location of these dogs, they were forefathers of the famous tosa inu. As other Japanese breeds, this was also officially declared a Natural Monument in 1937.
This Japanese breed, whose name means “small dog” in the Nagano dialect, has existed for centuries in the mountain areas near the Japanese sea, and was bred to hunt birds and small game. In the early XX century after a detailed study, the conclusion was made that the pure shiba were becoming alarmingly scarce. In order to control the situation, selective and careful breeding was begun adjusted to a rigid standard. It was declared a Natural Monument in 1937.
It is a sled dog whose name comes from a Siberian tribe, the Samoyeds, from where it was taken to Norway and, towards the XIX century, to England also, the country where it was selected and began the linage they are known today. This breed was one of the best supports in polar expeditions.
Its origin and background is the same as the canary and Iberian hounds. It is bred and selected in Portugal and is spread all around the country, being a much appreciated animal by rabbit and burrow animal hunters.
It lives in the Balearic Islands, where it is named the Ca Eivissec, although it is also bred in the four larger areas, from there it spread to Catalonia and Valencia too. In all these areas it is a very common dog, but which keeps its purity due to the breeder’s good criteria. Its ancestors are the ancient Egyptian dogs, which originated so many millenarian breeds, transported by Phoenician merchants.
It is a Spanish breed, bred for rabbit hunting and spread throughout the Canary Islands. The origin of the canary is so old that it dates back to the ancient Egyptian dogs, taken by any of the Mediterranean people that passed through the Canary Islands.
This breed’s origin is still a mystery: it is known as ancient and there are those who think that it comes from the extinct African Hottentot, taken by the merchants that traveled from Africa to Asia, a relationship supported in its trait that reminds of the crested Rhodesia dog. Although it is not known for sure, except for the age, assumptions are made but there is no supporting proof. What is true is that the breed is kept unchanged, due to its scarce or nonexistent natural reproduction.
This breed was not officially acknowledged until 1944, originally named Lapphund, which nowadays is bred and developed in the septentorial Swedish areas, but that during centuries has been a part of the life and traditions of the Japanese people. It has the same origin of other medium/large sized spitz that, as time has gone by, has been generically defined as Nordic breeds. Despite its name, currently, it is much more popular in Sweden than its native country.
This breed’s origin is still a mystery that on one hand places it in a distant Pre Inca period, which seems to be demonstrated by some ceramic pieces found, and on the other, it is said it arrived in Peru by the hand of the Chinese that emigrated after the slavery abolition. Those who defend the first hypothesis assure that it had the same magical symbolic importance than the hawk, the mountain lion or the snake. Nowadays there is great concern about the survival of this breed.
The existence of the also called “xo-loitzcuintle” is lost in the memory of time and is surrounded by mysteries and legends, although it was supposed to be a part of the powerful diet, as almost every other dog that coexisted with them. However, it was considered a representation of the god Xolotl, from where its name derives, whose mission was to travel along the souls in their journey toward eternity. From this historical period ceramic figurine are still kept representing this dog.
It is called bear dog because of its great bear and moose hunting skills, without overlooking any animal large enough to stimulate it in its stalking. Very helpful to the hunter because of its courage, it was one of the dogs most appreciated by the hunters. It is a Finnish breed, proceeding from the native area of Karelia, to the North East of Russia, used in large game for its excellent sense of direction. The organized breeding of the Karelian Bear Dog began in the year 1936 and its first standard was established in 1945, after World War II, which led it to the verge of extinction.
It is considered a breed 100% Swedish, although it is not defined whether the Vikings took it to England or if it reached Sweden from England. In that country it enjoys great popularity for its skill as a guard and shepherd; however outside its geographic environment it is not very popular. Despite its documented age, it was only officially acknowledged on 1940.
It originates in the Malta Island, perhaps while the Phoenician took the first dogs from Egypt, 2,000 years ago. It was bred as a rabbit hunter, activity in which it demonstrates a noticeable skill. In the older times, this dog was respected during its entire life, and to their death it was honored burying it with a ritual similar to the one performed with nobility.
It is a Palestinian breed, selected to guard and take care of the area’s herds. Only known initially in the Middle East, it has taken a long time to spread outside its natural borders, but during the last years it has been bred with much acceptance in some European countries and the United States, where it is known as Canaan Dog.
It is an enormously strong breed, since the weather’s natural selection where it originated guarantees its resistance.
This native breed of the arctic areas, created by the mahlemut nomad tribe, and one of the oldest in sled pulling, acknowledged as one of the most resistant for its natural selection in very extreme weather conditions. The Alaskan Malhamut has a recent history of strenuous work at the service of man. During World War II, this breed was used as sled animals and wounded rescue. It was also essential in the two most important expeditions to Antarctica, under the command of the American explorer Richard Evelyn Bird.
This Russian animal was bred to the North of Europe from the hunting Laika, which was selected for hunting and shooting. Currently, its diffusion reaches many other areas, mostly in the central Russian area, large farms abound. There are three varieties in the same breed, which are told apart in the fur and stand, although not in a very significant way.
The keeshond female has four or five puppies in each delivery. This dog’s longevity is from 12 to 13 years.
This Dutch breed receives the name of the rebel nicknamed Kees that fought against the house of Orange, and shares the background and age of the German Spitz. From Holland, it spread toward the North of Germany and, currently, it is very appreciated in several European countries and in the United States.
The Kai dog is a Japanese breed that was naturally bred in the mountain area of the Kai from the native, medium sized dogs. For centuries, this dog engaged in hunting deer and bore. Nowadays this dog is also a company animal known in some places as “Kai-Tora-Ken” and is considered a Natural Monument since 1934.
As other Japanese mountain dogs it has the particularity of having strong legs and extraordinarily developed tarsal-tibial joints.
The Siberian husky has a characteristic stride, elastic, smooth and without apparent effort.
This is a pure breed dog, bred many centuries ago as a sled animal by the chickchi, a town in the North East of Asia. From the late XIX century, it was spread to other countries of the world, especially in North America, when it was introduced to long distance races celebrated in Alaska. Since then it has become one of the main competitors in sled pulling.
Also known as eurasier, this dog emerged in Germany from the crossing of the chow-chow with a type wolf spitz. This breed was known as “wolf chow” and, later, it was given its current name, after the inclusion of samoyedo blood in its genetic chain.
It is a very ancient breed which has maintained inalterable, judging by its representation in VI century A.C. Sicilian coins. Traditionally bred for hunting rabbits, survived due to countrymen that, in the course of the centuries, have achieved in keeping it pure, using it mostly in the inaccessible mountainsides due to the Etna’s solidified lava. Currently there are breeders in Sicily as in other Italian provinces that select it with enthusiasm and export it outside of Italy very successfully.
In some places of the Asian continent, the breeding is destined to the use of its skin and its meat, which is considered exquisite. And despite that, about this breed, member of the spitz family, a series of legends are woven where it is denominated “the bear or lion dog”. From China it was taken to England, where in 1895 the Chow – Chow Breeder Club was founded, which transformed this dog, 2,000 years old into an appreciated pet.
The basenji, which means “thing of the bushes”, proceeds from Central Africa, where it was used in small game hunting. It is said that it was already known in pharaoh Egypt. In 1895 it reached England, where the breed was acknowledged, extending to the United States in the year 1941.
It is a Japanese hunting dog, from the area that names it, Akita, in the North of the Honshu Island. This breed established from the XVII century parting, apparently, from the chow chow and the Japanese Kari, but there are those that defend its much older. In the past, the Akita could only belong to nobility and special vocabulary was used to refer to it. It is now considered a national pride, with a strong spiritual significance, for which Akita figurines are offered upon a child’s birth, to wish happiness and when visiting a sick person as a message of health.
In this dogs bred to perform not only a determinate job are included in this group. There are sled dogs towing loads or transporting people, sometimes in very harsh atmospheric conditions and uneven terrains; those that guard and protect homes and those that gather herds, obeying their masters with unconditional loyalty. There are also those that fought against other dogs or against other much larger and stronger animals, such as bears or bulls; all these dogs were later used in collaboration tasks with the military and police.
Although the teckel is practically a bloodhound, it is about a breed that has its own group and nomenclature, as defined in the DCI and in every federation concerned with it. The American Kennel Club only acknowledges a single teckel breed although it admits six varieties, and the same federation in England is under the impression that there are six different breeds. During international competitions, that include tracking tests, this group-breed is included in the tracking bloodhound category.
There is no clear evidence about this dog’s origin, as with many others. There are those that defend that in 1924, when the crossing of the breed with the Cairn terrier was allowed, the origin would be the same. The theory that this is a native breed that has suffered some morphological alterations through time seems closer to reality. What is proved is that this is a Scottish breed that proceeds from the Argyllshire and its origin ancient.
This terrier was selected in Yorkshire, England, through several crossings between the Skye terrier, the Dandie Dinmont, the Manchester and the Maltese. In this English area it was used as a mouse hunter, but as its size progressively decreased, it became a luxurious and company pet, traits it currently maintains. Due to this company dog condition, it is one most known dog in the world.
In order to achieve a small but resistant and solid dog, the terrier Skye and Yorkshire were crossed in Australia. The result was this silky variety, also known as the Silky Terrier. It was acknowledged in1962 and soon later the standard was set. It has currently spread as a small breed, but its strong hunting instinct, a loyal genetic heir of its ancestors.
It has a lock between the eyes that should not cover them. In the expositions, it is considered a fault if any part of the face is covered by the hair.
This breed’s ancestors are amongst the Manchester terrier and some variety of bloodhound and, due to successive crossings and selections programmed by English breeder, this miniaturized dog was achieved, since the XIX century has its own standard set.
This dog was bred in Japan towards the XVII century, when it crossed with a European straight haired terrier, with small, native dogs, but the organized breed and selection was done toward 1920, and ten years later the breed standard was established.
There is a legend about this breed, where it is told that it already lived in Ireland four centuries ago, under the name madadh. It really is an animal that suffered several mutations with time, mostly when it comes to its height, until it reached the measurements and temperament intended by breeders. Its first official presentation was performed by the end of the XVIII century.
Descendent of the ancient Scottish terrier from whom it keeps the name is some places; it was crossed with other terriers, with the goal of gaining a good burrow hunter. From Scotland, is spread quickly and effectively to America and Australia, countries where it is very popular.
As its name indicates, it was originated in Manchester, North west England, during the XVIII century, selected as a mice hunting dog. This activity gave it well deserved fame, as proven in the contests in which, almost with no exception, it achieved every first place for the amount of rodents it hunted in a minimal time. It seems a fact that its ancestors were a small Italian greyhound and a black and tan terrier.
Its name comes from its color and the Kerry area, to the south of Ireland, where the breeding began and selection from some terrier varieties and an ancient dog, as the terrier, which lived in the area fields for centuries. In the 1940 decade the breed was officially acknowledged and it began spreading. Since it was an unbeatable mice hunter, it gained great popularity in England and the United States.
This breed was originated from the crossing of a male Sealyham terrier and a Scottish terrier female, with the object of gaining a light hunting dog, specialized in burrows. The breeding began towards the end of 1940 in Prague and acknowledged officially in 1963.
The proportions considered ideal for these dogs are 29 cm in males and 27 cm in females. The weigh is 6 to 10 kg. It has an elongated body, short limbs and the head in the shape of half a wedge.
In the early XX century, several terrier varieties were crossed, such as the Dandie Dinmont, the cairn and the Yorkshire, taken by the English emigrants to Australia to gain a different breed, although no careful selection criteria has been observed. Later that criteria was imposed and the official definition was set in 1903, although currently, according to the opinion of many federations, that definition doesn’t seem to be done with due rigor.
In 1870 English emigrant took some of their country’s Staffordshire bullterrier specimens to the United Sates, with the objective of using it in cruel dog fights, which were very popular. In North America, they were subject to new crossings to add size and the fighting continued, which made the breed almost disappear due to the great number of sacrificed dogs in the fights. At last, in 1974 it was officially acknowledged and the first standard was set. For the prestigious United Kennel Club, this American Staffordshire is the same dog as the pit bull.
It originates in Great Britain towards the XVIII, from a bulldog and a terrier, with the intention of getting a smaller and more agile dog fro bull fights and, later, for dog fights, so common in that period. In 1935, a Little after the fight ban, the breed was acknowledged as a company dog in England, quality for which it stands out if appropriately trained. In Great Britain it is affectionately called staffi and still has things in common with the old English bulldog and the terrier, the dogs that gave birth to it.
It has existed in the Skye Island, at the North of Scotland, for centuries and it was developed for vermin hunting, through the crossings of the Maltese and other terrier varieties. During some time it became the favorite pet of the British nobility, because of the sympathy it aroused in Queen Victoria. Then its popularity decreased a lot, but currently it is gaining it back, since families have proven that it is an excellent company dog.
It is original to the Lake area, Like district, it is bred in the Cumberland and Westmorland counties in Great Britain. Presumably, its origins are in other terriers, such as the bedlington, the border or even the, now extinct, old English terrier. It is a working dog, dedicated to protect the herds mostly from fox attacks, task it fulfills excellently. The first club for this breed was founded in 1912, it was acknowledged by the reowned Kennel Club in 1921
The classical fox terrier is the classic English terrier that, as it names indicates, was used in fox hunting, and in which it became essential since the XVII century. There are two varieties, with straight and hard hair, but we don’t know which of the two developed first, since they are all identical, except for the fur quality. Its popularity is just as wide throughout the world, although currently the hard haired variety has imposed as a company dog. In the genetic composition for both intervened several terriers, beagle, bulldog and greyhound.
This breed is original to Great Britain, developed in the English and Scottish border. Its curious name is due to Guy Mannering, title of a Walter Scott novel in which the main character, Dandie Dinmont, bred these dogs. In the past, it was only used to hunt foxes and other similar animals; nowadays it’s an appreciated company dog and, even, an assistant in therapy for physical and mentally challenged.
This is a Scottish breed, probably a heir to the skye terrier and the Scottish terrier, developed for breeding and tracking, although it was also used in cities for rat extermination, task it was unbeatable in. This dog’s origin goes back to the XVII century, and although it is known with its current name for less time, it is considered unanimously as one of the oldest terriers.
This breed was created to salvage the Skye island terrier’s traits.
This English terrier breed was selected from bulldog and white English terrier, now extinct, crossings, and later with the pointer, which gave it a larger size, to achieve a good fighting dog, a very popular activity in the XIX century. When dog fighting was banned in 1850, the bullterrier was recovered for other activities such as guarding and defense. There are two other varieties, so similar they share the same standard, although they go into shows separately since 1936: the color bullterrier and the miniature bullterrier.
It was originated in the Cheviot area, Great Britain, where it naturally developed amongst dogs that lived in the border areas in England and Scotland. The breed was established in the XIX century, gaining great popularity amongst the hunters because of its extraordinary ability for foxes and rodents. The border has been famous for a long time in the country English fairs, where it participates in competitions with good results.
Affection, audacity and sociability are three of the many qualities that describe the Border terrier’s character.
The Bedlington has its origin in the Northumberland, in the North of England. There it developed to hunt small game, especially in water, where it performs its task with great ability due its distinct and excellent sense of smell. It was known by the name Rolhbuiy Terrier during a long time, but took its current name when the standard was elaborated in 1825, date in which a whippet blood contribution was added, due to which its then straight spine, got a more curved line.
This dog was selected in the middle of the XIX century in the Aire valley, in England, crossing the red and black terrier with otter hounds, to get a good otter as well as small rodent hunting dog. At first it was known as the waterside terrier for its adaptation to water and its skill in duck hunting; more recently, it has been used as a guard, defense and rescue dog. It became very popular in the army during World War II since it’s an excellent sentinel.
In the terrier group there are breeds that have large size, activity and behavior differences. There are ones that are engaged in hunting on land and water, those who serve to guard assets, for herding, for bull fighting or with other dogs. Others are, simply, what we call pets nowadays: kind company dogs that socialize with man at their homes, forming part of the family.
The Yorkshire’s fur shine and softness is a product of chance: textile industry workers used to pet the dogs that rid them from mice and rats with lanolin stained hands.
Japanese in origin, the tosa was anciently a celebrated combat dog that nowadays engages in guarding and defense. It appeared as a hybrid of the shikoku-ken and occidental dogs, amongst which we can count the German pointer, the bulldog, the Great Dane or the mastiff, in selective and successive crossings to enhance the breed. It is also known as the “sumo wrestler” or “Japanese dogge”.
There are many sides to the origin of the Terranova, but the most reliable seems the one that places its appearance in the Canadian areas that name it. It seems that the breed was selected in order to adapt it to the water, because of its fur, the webbed shape of its feet and, mostly, because it is an excellent swimmer that loves the aquatic environment. In the XIX century it crossed with the Saint Bernard, from which it inherited its altruistic qualities.
The shar – pei, or sand dog in English, is the most emblematic breed in China, to which magical behaviors and several legends have been attributed, one of them assuring that it is the last soul occupant, before it lodges in man’s body. It is believed that this dog’s ancestors have lived since the Han dynasty, from 20 centuries ago, because of the finding of some clay pieces with figurines very similar to the current breed. In the 1980 Guinness Record site considered the most rare and expensive dog in the world.
The schnauzer is an ancient breed of the Württemberg area in Germany, selected from the Flanders sheepdogs and other shepherds, probably Tyrolese, where it is used as a guardian dog although it was a skilled mice hunter in the past.
This Yugoslavian shepherd is an ancient breed raised in the Sharplanina mountain areas. Their backgrounds probably come from the crossings between Asian and European shepherds, during the different migrations.
This noble giant of the canine world descends from the mastiffs that went with the roman legions that, in turn, descended from the Tibetan mastiff. It received its Monastere Saint Bernard, in the Swiss Alps, where it was carefully bred by the monks from the VI century. In the XIX century, it crossed with the Terranova.
It is considered one of the most ancient breeds, dating to the Roman conquests and descending from the working dogs that went with the legions during the expansion. Later, its breeding centered in the Rottweil city in Germany, whereof its name. In 1966 its first standard was elaborated and dispersed throughout the world, especially in the United States, country where it is widely accepted.
It is the smallest of pinschers. It is a miniature breed but has no vestige of dwarfism, whose origin is only known to be ancient. From 1900, when it was first included in a show, American breeders imported some specimens to develop the breed in North America. During some time it was very popular amongst the ladies in the European courts and in European and United State’s gentry.
The big, always shining and somewhat bulging eyes, of the miniature pinscher, give it a very tender expression: as if it was asking for love.
German breed, from which varieties such as the popular midget pinscher or hard hair pinscher (now extinct) were originated. Its origin is not very clear: there are theories that make it a schnauzer descendent, while others defend it being much older. What seems evident is that the pinscher derives from the Doberman, so much that in some circles it is called the “small Doberman”.
Pinscher’s limbs are muscular, rounded and short feet, with fingers close together. Some call it the “small Doberman”.
This oriental dog lives and was bred in the mountain area of Kras, in former Yugoslavia, not being well known outside its natural environment. It is a tireless shepherd, whose breed was officially acknowledged in 1939, although there are documents dated back to 2689 that make reference to their work qualities and morphological traits.
The Karst sheepdog has rounded feet with hard pads, in order to walk through the rocky lands of Karst.
This ancient breed dog is also called Turkish shepherd, originated from the powerful hunting dogs in the areas that today are Iraq and Iran. It was used as a combat animal and large game hunter; it is currently a guard and company dog. It its evolution, weather and surrounding town’s environment have been determinant. In its lands, which range from Turkey to Afghanistan, shepherds place a collar spiked with iron nails to defend it from herd prowling wolf bites.
This breed could have originated in the Naples towards the I century of our age, from the molossers bred by the Romans. Alternating periods in which it was almost extinct with others in which it was attempted to regenerate, it reached our times due to the great labor of the dog expert and writer Piero Scanziani, who was successful in selecting specimens that, in turn, originated the beautiful Neapolitan mastiff that currently enjoys a well deserved popularity and appreciation amongst those who know it.
It is an ancient dog, probably from the most ancient roots in the Spanish canine world, because its ancestors are those giant dogs that protected livestock about 4,000 years ago. The breed evolved, but mainly engaging in the merino livestock’s seasonal migration, guarding and defending the herds from predators. It settled more incidentally in the Extremadura and La Mancha areas, where it was used and is still used to guard corrals and stables.
This Spanish breed is different from the French Pyrenees mountain dog and from any other Spanish mastiff. This dog, also called the lioness mastiff and Navarre’s mastiff, was bred in the Pyrenean areas of Navarra and Aragon for centuries, the same centuries that it has walked by the shepherds and being essential when defending the herds, facing wolves with notable courage.
The Pyrenean mastiff must not be confused with the Pyrenean mountain dog, which is a French breed.
As in many other cases, there are several theories about the origins of this breed, although it is probably from Leonberg, the German area of Württemberg - , whence the name. These same differences extend to their age, for there are reference since 1770, despite that they are only acknowledged in 1949. The Leonberger comes from Saint Bernard, Terranova and the Pyrenean Mountain dog crossings. Amongst the several famous characters that prefer this breed for company we can mention Marie Antoinette, Richard Wagner, Empress Sissi and Bismarck.
In the XIX century, an animal draftsman named Edwin Landseer selected and named this work and defense Canadian breed, a variety of Terranova. In the beginning of the XX century it was nearly extinct when a group of German breeders took it upon themselves to keep it from disappearing, performing different crossings with other dogs, such as the Pyrenean Mountain dog and the Saint Bernard.
This German breeds, little known outside of its country, it was originated from Swiss sheepdogs, Hungarian shepherds and Pyrenean mountain dogs. According to documents dated from 1230, the hover wart keeps its same physiognomy to our day, which determines the breed’s purity. It was believed disappeared for a long time until 1922, when a group of breeders boosted the breed, regenerating and selecting the breed from the scarce specimens found. At the beginning they were used in the rural environment to guard the farmyards, reason for their little, or even lack of, popularity.
It is known in Europe since the XVI century. It receives its name, mostly among the Anglo-Saxon, from its careful breeding in Denmark, but is also known as the German dogge, because that was the country several types of dogs where gathered under a single classification under the term Dogge, applied to exceptionally large and strong breeds. This dogge once was the most preferred dog amongst the central European nobility. As an acknowledgement if its qualities, Otto von Bismarck named it “The Empire Dog”.
The Brazilian mastiff originates from the dogge and mastiff breeds sent to America by the conquerors. Due to its excellent sense of smell, in the past it was used in plantations to chase fugitive slaves. Currently, it is a work dog that performs its hunting and herding tasks perfectly. Little known outside of Brazil, except for the surrounding countries, especially in Argentina.
This breed was originated in the Tibet more than 2,000 years ago and kept unchanged with time. The Assyrian used it as a war animal and to keep a watch in prisoners after the battle. Bas- reliefs found in ancient Babylon, Egypt and Greece prove this dog’s great popularity after the invasions, first the Asian and then the Roman, which took it across the Mediterranean basin. This is why it’s easy to assume that this ancient dogge let do the molossers we know nowadays.
Its name in mallorquin, Ca de Bou, (“bull dog”), comes from its fighting dog past, in the then popular bull fighting. Its origin was due to crossings between the peninsular dogges, surely led to the Balearic Islands during James the First’s conquests, with other English molossers. It is used as a watch and defense dog.
It is believed that this breed already existed from the time of the Celts, who used it as a guardian. During the Middle Ages two varieties were known, the butcher dog and Turkish dog, both were trained to fight larger animals and other dogs. In 1863, Paris celebrated the first show in which these dogs appeared under their current name. After two world wars, they seemed to have disappeared, but in the Bordeaux, France, the breed was retrieved from the few that were saved from the extinction, recovering its development in the 1960s.
It was originated in the early XX century in the cities of Cordova and Esquel, after a series of crossings with other breeds, as the dogge carried by the Spanish in the XVI century, the bulldog, bullterrier and some fighting dogs. The breed standard was set in 1964, defining then as a dog destined to mountain lion and bore hunting. It is very popular in Argentina, but outside the borders it is not very popular, as in the case of Europe, where very few specimens reached.
This dog was created toward 1890 by Louis Doberman in Apolda, Germany, from Rottweiler and pinscher crosses. Doberman worked as a guard and bred this new breed to get a dog to help him at his job: a good guardian, obedient and trainable in self defense.
This breed is officially from Great Britain towards the end of the XIX century and its first standard goes back to the 1924. In the past, the bullmastiff was used in England as a guardian in the large private reserves with the purpose of chasing and capturing furtive hunters, which it did by tackling them with their body weight and throwing themselves at them, in order to pin them down, without using its powerful mouth. Despite this trade, which it still has and is much appreciated, it is very aware of its strength and never attacks indiscriminately.
From the XVIII century, the bulldog was bred in England as a fight dog, although it is believed that it dates long before that. It was close to disappearing when it was no longer used in fights, but due to its noble temperament, it began winning adepts that made it the appreciated company dog it is today.
The bulldog has droopy lips, that when the mouth is closed, join in a very pronounced curve around the edges.
Currently, the bulldog is considered the national English dog due to its popularity in England.
The smallest of Swiss mountain sheepdog was achieved after carefully selected successive crossings. It is native to the Entlebuch Valley, between the Bern and Lucerne, where it is considered an excellent helper in guarding and herding tasks. It has been described towards the middle of the XIX century, but it was in 1913 when it was presented in a canine show for the first time. The standard definition was set in 1927.
This sheepdog is selected to watch over, guide and defend the cattle, farms and houses. This is also an excellent dog for family life.
This shepherd Swiss dog, native to Appenzell and probably a descendant of the Tibetan molosser and Nordic dogs, it was first described in an 1852 treatise titled Life of the Alpine World. But it was known a long time before that for its excellent presentations as a guide and cattle guard. Towards the end of the XIX it was defined as an individual breed and the first standard was set.
The boxer dog is the result of several mixes and selections, the last one with the bulldog. Its origin is Germany and began to gain popularity towards the end of World War II, when soldiers from several countries, that had used them during the conflict, took them back to their homes as pets. In fact, this breed has been selected in such a way that it combines every defense feature and, if necessary, some fierceness. Perhaps this is why this one of the first dogs trained by the police and the army, but has also been revealed as a great guide for the blind and kind company dog.
It is possible that this Swiss breed, also known as the Bernese mountain dog, descends from ancient dogs led to the area by the Roman army, or by direct selection, through other dogs that emerged from them as the Rottweiler or the Saint Bernard. It is a farm dog, bred in the prairie area close to Bern and close to the alpine, being extremely popular in its native land. Its first standard was set in 1910 and, from then, it was known in other countries with wide acceptance.
The Affenpinschers breed is native to Germany in the XV century and was quickly popular in other countries in Europe from the XVII. It developed as a mice hunter by excellence, and this was the reason why the breed was so demanded amongst grocers and stable owners. It is currently the ideal companion animal. Because of its peculiar appearance it is known by some no less peculiar names, as the English Monkey Pindacker, and the French Diablolin Moustachu, which means “mustached little devil”.
This group og dogs includes a series of breeds with different qualities and a common objective: to guard. They are destined to guard defending, guard vigilant, guard attacking if necessary, be it in a ranch, in houses or in the mountains, performing its job in sometimes adverse and even dangerous conditions.
Several theories are considered about this English sheepdog breed’s origin, one of them is that the Celts took it to Wales and it there it crossed with Nordic and English shepherds, which led to the Welsh corgi cardigan. Another theory assumes that during the middle Ages, the Flemish weavers introduced it to the islands and there it crossed with other important dogs, resulting in the Welsh corgi Pembroke breed.
The Old English Shepherd breed was presented in 1873, whose original name is Old English Sheep Dog also known as a bobtail. It was developed in Great Britain to take care sheep as well as cattle, for which it gained great popularity in the rural areas.
The Schipperkes breed’s origin is quite confusing although it is settled in Belgium and, because of its morphology, probably descends from spitz type shepherds. It was almost essential in warehouses and stables for its rat and mice hunting skills. It was presented for the first time in a show during the XX century and becoming popular and spreading throughout other European countries.
The Schapendoes breed is native to Holland that has recently gained popularity throughout almost every rural area in the Netherlands for its excellent sheepdog performance. Dutch schapendoes breeding begun during the 40s in the XX century from the few individuals that survived its almost complete extinction. Genetically familiar to other long haired shepherds, currently only dogs with registered parenthoods are bred.
It is believed that the pumi dog was originated in Hungary, between the XVII and XVIII century, fruit of the crossing between the also Hungarian puli and other European shepherds that passed through the area leading their herds. For a long time this dog was identified along with the puli, until its standard as a pure breed was acknowledged during the 1920s.
The Hungarian Puli dog belongs to a very ancient breed that descends from the long haired oriental dogs, probably the Tibetan terrier, and has developed mainly in Hungary, where it is very useful in guiding and cattle care. It is also called Hungarian water dogs for its swimming abilities. It is very popular in its original area, but it is not well known outside of it.
The Czechoslovakian Wolfdog breed was originated in ancient Czechoslovakia in the middle of the XX century, after several scientific experiments. Crossings from the German shepherd and the great gray wolf resulted in a tamable shepherd. In the decade of 1980 this new animal’s acknowledgement as a national breed was official.
There are many theories about the origin of the Long-haired Pyrenean Shepherd breed. Some place it over 2,000 years ago in the Low French Pyrenees, descending from dogs that accompanied the roman armies, others say it is the result from crossings with the Bric shepherd and the most popular opinion is that it is a very ancient native breed, although it was during the early XX century when the first standard was established.
The Polish Lowland Sheepdog's origin, used since remote times as a shepherd, is not completely defined. It was believed that its parenthood was that of the bobtail or Bergamo shepherd, but the most logical theory is that it is a descendant of ancient oriental dogs, as it occurs with other breeds from Central European areas.
The Shetland Sheepdog comes from Northeastern Scotland, from the Shetland Islands, where it emerges from possible crosses between collies and dogs in Northern Europe, like the Iceland shepherd. The breed was acknowledged in 1919, and from this official acknowledgement, breeders have procured it comes closer to the collie, because it looks like a miniature collie.
The Picardy Sheepdog origin is very ancient, it is said that it has been with the Picardy area shepherds since the VIII century, in the North of France. The breed’s official presentation was in 1863 and its standard acknowledgement in 1925, but its existence took place between great popularity periods and others close to extension, as during both World Wars, a moment in which it was close to disappearing.
Ascribed to Italian shepherds, the maremman, or Maremma shepherd, is a descendant, as many other dogs in its group, from ancient Asian dogs that arrived in Europe with the Mongolian invasions. Some dogs probably entered Italy through the Adriatic proceeding from Greece, while others established in Central Europe and, after natural selection, contribute different TRAITS to their origin.
The Dutch Shepherd is a crossing of the native shepherd and Vega malinois, its breeding is limited to the south of the Netherlands, especially in the Bravant province.
The Croatian Sheepdog is an ancient dog, bred in rural Croatian farms and little known outside that natural environment. Its origin is in other shepherd dogs, from the north of the country, producing other breeds in ancient Yugoslavia. The Croatian shepherd has also intervened in the appearance of a later variety within the group it belongs to.
This excellent shepherd from the Brie area in France has been essential as a herder and cattle guardian for many years. It shares its age with the Pyrenean breed, since according to some experts it could have accompanied Charlemagne during his military campaign.
The BERGUM SHEPHERD breed of shepherds is very ancient, although the period in which it developed has not been defined. It was spread from Bergum, in the Lombardy area, toward the North Mountains of Italy for its excellent and intense performance as a guide and guardian of the cattle in the mountains.
Belgian Shepherds traces back towards the end of the XIX century in Belgium there were a great number of herd leaders with similar appearance, but bred without selective criteria. Animals with similar characteristics, but with mediocre quality, wild and, in some cases, aggressive.
Despite its denomination and many theories about its origin, the Australian Shepherd Dog breed, just as it is currently known, has developed in the United States. Its ancestors were shepherd dogs, probably Basque bred in Australia, although there are some who confer paternity to Dalmatians and Collies.
Information on the German Shepherd tell us this ancient dog is a descendent of a shepherd, probably Persian, and in some crosses with the le
The Mudi is a cattle dog breed emerged in Hungary during the turning of the XIX century, from spontaneous crossings amongst Hungarian or German shepherds with erect ears.
Towards the XII century, the nomad ottoman shepherds took this dog to Hungary, where the breed settled and became popular under the name Hungarian Kuvasz, which means safe guardian, because of its excellent performance in herding and guar
The Komondor is a Hungarian guardian and herding dog, Tibetan mastiff descendant, its settling in Hungary is probably due t
An Australian Kelpies is a herding Australian dog is a descendant of the short haired collie, which arrived to Australia from Scotland at the end of the XIX century, although it could also be the crossing between the collie and the bobtail.
It was originated in the Catalan Pyrenees, from other shepherds in the area, and its development and popularity was boosted through rural and farmer Catalonia since it is a hard working, resistant and an excellent herd guide and guardian.
This long haired Scottish shepherd comes from a very remote place. There are references to this breed that goes back to the XVII, when, from Scotland and the North of England, it arrives to North America along with the first colonists. Queen Victoria with her well known admiration for the also called Rouge Collie, definitely contributed to its popularity. Hollywood made it worldwide famous through Lassie, main character in several movies.
Even though the standard in this collie defines it as a separate breed, it is true that its ancestors are the same as the long haired collie’s (Rouge Collie) and both have their origins in Scotland, where they have been used as shepherds for centuries.
The FLANDERS CATTLE DOG breed’s origin has caused several responsibility claims amongst the Belgian and the French, which led the Canine Federation to define it as native to Flanders, appeasing both with this decision. Although the areas where this dog appeared are in the south of Belgium as well as in the north of France, Belgian breeders retrieved the almost extinct breed during World War I. As its name indicates, cattle dogs herd oxen and, by extension, any large livestock.
From some domestic breed crossings, such as collie with dingo, the Australian dog was bred, named the Australian Cattle dog, for its use in the care of bovine cattle, especially in herding. This selective breeding went on for more than 60 years, until a dog that Australian farmers define as essential was achieved.
The word border used in the breed name "BORDER COLLIE" indicates that this dog comes from precisely the limit between England and Scotland, where it came under the hand of Vikings, which used it as a reindeer shepherd.
The origin of the BEARDED COLLIES goes back to ancient Scotland; there are who those who defend that it was known since the roman times – raised as a shepherd, currently it still performs the same function, even though it has also become an appreciated pet, especially in England, being less popular in other countries. It is possible that the creation of the bearded was originated from the bobtail, and the Border terrier, contributed its agility.
Since man has changed his life course, around the Neolithic, when he began farming and domesticating animals, it also began what would become a successful society dedicated to livestock and in full cooperation with the dog. Animals composing this shepherd and cattle dog group since then have dedicated to gathering, leading, watching and protecting the flocks, using, for every one of these activities, the most diverse procedures.
In order for a dog to develop healthily, its diet can be controlled with caloric and nutritive contributions: it’s necessary to balance sugars, fat, protein, minerals, vitamins and, naturally, water. The size and weight of the animal determine food amounts and frequency, as well as nutrient value corresponding to each age, because a young puppy, for example, it needs more protein contribution than an older one.
Bathing frequency is depends on the dog’s breed: while there are some that can bathe twice or even once a year, others need to bathe every fifteen days. The safest indication will be given by the veterinarian, but it is essential to know that shampoo should not have an acid pH and that the more frequent the baths, the lesser shampoo amount will be necessary. Fur hygiene depends, obviously, on the kind of fur the dog has: it is not the same if we are talking about a short haired boxer or a Maltese, which have a very long hair.
They will be internally washed with 10% hydrogen peroxide periodically, pouring it inside while massaging its introduction. Dental cleaning is more delicate, since we need to use a special sharp instrument to eliminate plaque and keep the dog immobilized, for which a professional is recommended. However, in order to help the teeth to be as healthy and clean as possible, we need to feed the dog pieces of stale bread that will serve as massage and retrieve accumulations between teeth and gums.
Dog eye care begins with a good periodical cleaning. Gauze soaked in a boric product, recommended by a veterinarian, will be swept around the eyelids and eyelashes being careful of not introducing it in the eyes, getting rid of accumulated rheum and dirtiness.
The veterinarian will take care of fixing the vaccination calendar as well as its management, providing the owner with an immunization record, compulsory by law, as information about the type of vaccine that has been used and repeating dates. If we acquire a puppy over eight weeks, it is the seller’s responsibility to provide with the corresponding immunization record, because at this age, the puppy should have already begun its vaccination.
In order for a dog to be well cared for, we have to provide it with proper sanitary attention, adequate nutrition, exercise according to breed and a careful attention to its hygiene. Its health depends on the care it receives during its first year, which is an essential time to develop physical and psychologically, in which a preventive veterinary control must be sustained. Veterinarian attention has become more and more common for our pets.
We should no spare well deserved praise and complacent gestures, when it can walk side by side, falling into its master’s step. Once the animal is completely accustomed to the orders above, it will be time to begin the exercises that will teach it to march, adapting to the rhythm, and will of its trainer. Because these exercises require patience, time and experience, the best is to leave it to the hands of a professional.
The exercise to training dogs in this order is easy and brings great results in a short period of time; the master place the extensible leash around the dog’s neck and order “stay, sit”, immediately after the master will take a few steps away and order it “come”, the first times it will have to tug on the leash, until the animal associates the word with the approaching gesture intended. As the exercise progresses, the dist
Teaching a dog postures is reinforcement to hierarchic authority, besides being very useful to calm a nervous attitude, and prevent danger or make it understand what is expected from it at every moment. When ordering “sit” we intend that the animal, besides yielding, waits in a resting position. To get it to understand we will pull the leash upwards while its back is pressed downwards with our hand. This exercise should be done during a few minutes, several times a day.
Upon being separated from its mother, the puppy feels despaired, it is afraid of abandonment and of being left alone; this is why they complain when people leave its sight. This can be helped with some tricks, such as playing the radio or not leaving it in the dark, but as the dog grows, this company claiming behavior can turn into a habit and could become a problem of it is not caught effectively.
In order to make the dog used to collar use, this must be done little by little. No animal is comfortable with a completely foreign object around the neck. It will try to get it off and will protest, but since its use is vital, we will need to force it to accept it in the least traumatic way possible. At first it will be placed during times in which the dog will associate it to something it likes, such as eating and playing. Day after day the collar time will be prolonged until it represents no discomfort.
This is one of the first things a puppy must be taught; for that we need to get ahead of its needs, something that is wildly compensated by the results.
The sense of smell is, without a question, the dog’s most direct means to know and made themselves known to other animals in their species. When they mark their territory when they do it over other dogs’ urine it means to indicate their superiority.
Dogs have different ways of communicating. They make themselves understood through their voices, body postures and smell. In most cases they use barks and, even if it’s less common, it can also howl. A short howling can communicate unease, a state of restlessness or to ask for something. A long howling, mostly when the animals live in a pack, it is useful to communicate their presence, to keep danger away, as a gathering calling or when they feel attracted a female in heat.
The dog’s age was easy to identify, as in humans: during the first 15 days of life, during the neonatal stage, their primary activities are reduced to eating and sleeping. During the transition age, that lasts up to 25 days of life, the sensorial organs have matures, which allows the dog to perceive external stimulus. At this age it begins to withdraw from the mother and recognizes its siblings, even though it doesn’t play with them yet.
Canine species have a unique particularity amongst animal species: without dividing is subspecies, they present a vast polymorphism. As a result of chance, natural selection or man’s hand, there is an enormous breed variety that confirms that particularity. Dogs are, unquestionably, the carnivore with most evolutional success and fewer modifications during such evolution.
The approx. de Bou is one of the FCI Spanish dog race recognized. During the British crew Menorcas (1708-1802) were dog fights in the port areas of the Balearen a popular people sport. Since the approx. de Bou guarded and for the bull biting was used otherwise bulls, it was usually the champion. When bull biting the task of the dog consists of tearing an full-grown bull to ground. After the prohibition of the dog fights and the bull biting the number of representatives of this race decreased/went back strongly.